先 来简介一下。《slide:ology》是Nancy Duarte写的一本非常著名的讲解怎么做PPT的书。个人感觉比Garr Reynolds的力作《The Presentation Zen》更具实用性（网上也有PDF）。Nancy Duarte在PPT界非常有名，作品多元化，也有自己的PPT设计公司，硅谷很多知名大公司及财富五百强中很多企业都是她的客户。
If a slide contains more than 75 words, it has become a document.
Presentations with 50 or so words per slide serve as a teleprompter.
True presentations focus on the presenter and the visionary ideas and concepts they want to communicate.
The audience will either read your slides or listen to you. They will not do both. So, ask yourself this: is it more important that they listen, or more effective if they read?
The presentation development process is a three-legged stool — message, visual story, and delivery.
The amount of time required to develop a presentation is directly proportional to how high the stakes are.
(average timeframes and steps for an hour-long presentation that has 30 slides)
- 6-20 hours
Research and collect from the web, colleagues, and the industry.
- 1 hour
Build an audience-needs map.
- 2 hours
Generate ideas via sticky notes.
- 1 hour
Organize the ideas.
- 1 hour
Have colleagues critique or collaborate around the impact the ideas will have on audience.
- 2 hours
Sketch a structure and/or a storyboard.
- 20-60 hours
Build the slides in a presentation application.
- 3 hours
Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse (in the shower, on the treadmill, or during the commute)
36-90 hours total
- What are they like?
- Why are the here?
- What keeps them up at night?
- How can you solve their problem?
- What do you want them to do?
- How might they resist?
- How can you best reach them?
“Presenting is not simply about aesthetics or making things pretty; it’s about creating meaning. It’s about being present. I need to ensure that every person in the audience believes I’m having an individual conversation with them. That is my goal.”
— Rick Justice (Executive Vice President, Cisco Systems)
Change your environment when you need to be creative.
Continue to sketch and force yourself to think through several more ideas.
Sticky notes allow ideas to be captured, sorted, and re-arranged as needed.
Don’t be stingy with the sticky notes.
Think though multiple alternatives.
Sketching is the magical part of the process — taking rough ideas, find tuning them, re-organizing them, and sketching it out all over again until you can see a story.
Don’t worry about the quality of your sketches.
The first sketch was the most obvious, but when given more thought, additional — and potentially better — ideas appear.
- Use images that are culturally neutral. Images translate, word don’t.
- Keep graphics extremely simple. Not all cultures process info from left to right. Simplifying is essential. You could animate the content so it gradually appears — guiding the order the audience should process it.
- Connect with your audience. Detailed scripts actually hinder presenters from making that connection.
In the end, a great presentation should transcend linguistic, geographic, and cultural boundaries, Truth is truth.
- Abstract Concepts
Divergent / Convergent
From a point
With a core
Without a core
- Realistic Concepts
- Display Data
The abstract concepts are usually shapes that are combined to show relationships.
Including display data in the diagram section may seem illogical. But data displayed visually is a diagram of sorts — and it’s often more clear when the display highlights the meaning of the information.
- Cluster: Enclosed
- Radiate: With a core
- Radiate: From a point
- Cluster: Enclosed
- Structure: Layers
- Flow: Convergent
- Tell the truth
- Get to the point
- Pick the right tool for the job
- Highlight what’s important
- Keep it simple
- Visual Elements
- eye flow
“People have a hard time coping with excessive cognitive strain. There is simply a limit to a person’s ability to process new information efficiently and effectively. Understanding can be hard enough without the excessive and nonessential bombardment by our visuals that are supposed to be playing a supportive role.”
— Garr Reynolds (Author, Presentation Zen)
The audience can identify the main point quickly.
The audience know the order in which to process the information.
The audience sees the relationship between elements.
- Elements are equal
- Parent Dominates
- Child Dominates
The audience senses that the information belongs together.
The audience perceives meaning from the location of elements.
The audience has visual breathing room.
Overcrowding the slides doesn’t add to the clarity of the message.
Use your first and last slides (called bumper slides) to identify yourself or company.
The lower right is the best place for logo.
Laws of Environmental Consistency
- consistent vanishing point
- consistent light source
- consistent effect on the elements
Avoid adding photos or images to the background. It distracts the audience.
- Color (R G B)
72, 107, 28
101, 141, 43
144, 193, 62
144, 25, 28
215, 32, 39
243, 113, 84
136, 20, 119
196, 22, 28
198, 68, 31
0, 172, 179
0, 175, 113
136, 198, 91
202, 108, 24
0, 84, 150
191, 86, 139
188, 211, 87
- Split Complementary
84, 39, 133
206, 138, 20
92, 160, 56
47, 179, 202
241, 86, 79
246, 150, 84
0, 124, 128
123, 10, 107
206, 128, 20
13, 124, 193
208, 63, 65
252, 238, 33
0, 82, 149
27, 125, 55
138, 13, 16
202, 103, 32
103, 163, 189
144, 193, 62
199, 77, 31
192, 104, 138
To assemble a palette, ideally select three to five core colors from the color wheel, plus a neutral and a highlight color.
Remember the 3-second rule.
Make sure your apostrophes have a head and a tail. If they look like splinters, it’s bad; if they look like tadpoles, it’s good.
In typesetting terms, a widow is a single word by itself at the end of a paragraph. (NEVER)
- Protect audience
- Use sparingly
- Write headlines
- Use parallel structure
- Avoid sub-bullets
“A good rule of thumb for font size is to divide the oldest investor’s age by two, and use that font size.” — Kawasaki, author and former Apple Fellow
- Establishing a photographic family
- The Rule of Thirds
- Taking your own photos
Do not snag images from the web. If your presentation becomes popular online, the owner of the images can insist you pay usage rights. That can be expensive.
- Using the personality of lines
- Creating an illustration library
- Illustrating complex stories
It’s best to build and animate these complex stories so the audience understands the interconnectedness of the various parts over time.
- Stylizing diagrams and illustrations
If you choose to use animation, it should look natural and alive.
The movement of objects should seem familiar and make sense.
- Change in Relationship
- Change in Object
Creating panoramas and scenes, not slides.
Content can pan from scene to scene, rather than just from slide to slide.
Avoiding Visual Vertigo
Just because an animation feature is an application doesn’t mean you have to use it.
- The animation is unnatural or counterintuitive.
- The pace is frenetic, annoying, or chronic (buzzes like a fly).
- It doesn’t add value to the content or serve a purpose.
- The movement distracts the audience from the presenter.
- The animation feature is used “just because.”
- Too many animations confuse the purpose.
- The animation style is inappropriate for the content.
- A sudden animation surprises or startles the audience.
When more than one person generates presentations for an organization, a well-built template system is a must.
Always remember, employees are ambassadors of the brand. Their interactions with the industry, clients, and shareholders keep the brand perpetually visible. Arming them with the right tools helps tell a cohesive visual story and also streamlines their presentation development process.
Build a template that is timeless so that you won’t tire of it easily. If built well, it can remain in circulation for years.
- Rarely Change
- Template-driven systems
- Business systems (letterhead)
- Website framework
- Brochure templates
- Visual attributes
- Color palettes
- Grid layouts
- Graphical elements
- Often Transform
- Ad campaigns
- Marketing campaigns
- Retail displays and packaging
- Annual reports
Before you start developing a template, a conversation with your IT department is in order.
- Ask the IT department what the migration plan is for the company’s presentation application.
- If you create a template loaded with images, query the IT department whether the organization has adequate storage.
Constraining the Text
Constraining the Length
Constraining the Projector
As you know, if you pause during your presentation, it creates more drama and meaning, and reinforce what you have to say.
Just because your slides look great does not mean they convey useful meaning.
- Business model
- Underlying magic/technology
- Marketing and sales
- Projections and milestones
- Status and timeline
- Summary and call to action
How many slides? The Sky Is the Limit.
How many slides? Depends on the Technology.
Using a flip chart for a group this size is effective because a video feed magnifies the flip chart on a large screen so that everyone can see it.
- Treat Your Audience as King
They didn’t come to your presentation to see you. They came to find out what you can do for them. Success meaning giving them a reason for taking their time, providing content that resonates, and ensuring it’s clear what they are to do.
- Spread Ideas and Move People
Creating great ideas is what we were born to do; getting people to feel like they have a stake in what we believe is the hard part. Communicate your ideas with strong visual grammar to engage all their senses and they will adopt the ideas as their own.
- Help Them See What You’re Saying
Epiphanies and profoundly moving experiences come from moments of clarity. Think like a designer and guide your audience through ideas in a way that helps, not hinders their comprehension. Appeal not only to their verbal senses, but to their visual senses as well.
- Practice Design, Not Decoration
Orchestrating the aesthetic experience through well-known but oft-neglected design practices often transforms audiences into evangelists. Don’t just make pretty talking points. Instead, display information in a way that makes complex information clear.
- Cultivate Healthy Relationships
A meaningful relationship between you, your slides, and your audience will connect people with content. Display information in the best way possible for comprehension rather than focusing on what you need as a visual crutch. Content carriers connect with people.
- 10 Tips for Designing Presentations That Don’t Suck
Part 1: http://designshack.co.uk/articles/graphics/10-tips-for-designing-presentations-that-dont-suck-pt-1
Part 2: http://designshack.co.uk/articles/graphics/10-tips-for-designing-presentations-that-don’t-suck-pt-2
(Part 2有中文版翻译：http://www.u148.net/article/27621.html。Part 1的中文版翻译链接失效)