Home > 管理/咨询/经济 > 《slide:ology》书摘

《slide:ology》书摘

我抽空通读了Nancy Duarte的大作《slide:ology》,简单的做了一下书摘。国内还没有中文版。
我敢说它比国内任何一部讲PPT的书都好。网上有PDF,自己动手找找。
我的书摘各位有兴趣看看就行,我没刻意去标注其中的字体颜色等。
转载注明出处:http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_538f46f70100n9rb.html

先 来简介一下。《slide:ology》是Nancy Duarte写的一本非常著名的讲解怎么做PPT的书。个人感觉比Garr Reynolds的力作《The Presentation Zen》更具实用性(网上也有PDF)。Nancy Duarte在PPT界非常有名,作品多元化,也有自己的PPT设计公司,硅谷很多知名大公司及财富五百强中很多企业都是她的客户。

对于 不熟悉她的朋友,这里可以提一部曾获得2007年第79届奥斯卡的最佳纪录片——《难以忽视的真相/不容忽视的真相》(An Inconvenient Truth),内容与环境保护相关。整部纪录片是一位叫Al Core的美国前副总统做讲解。如果没看过的同学可以去优酷或者Youtube搜索看看【我给参考链接:(A)(B)】。演讲中所使用的PPT就是DUARTE公司设计的。


《slide:ology》书摘

Chapter 1

Creating a New Slide Ideology

If a slide contains more than 75 words, it has become a document.

Presentations with 50 or so words per slide serve as a teleprompter.

True presentations focus on the presenter and the visionary ideas and concepts they want to communicate.

The audience will either read your slides or listen to you. They will not do both. So, ask yourself this: is it more important that they listen, or more effective if they read?

The presentation development process is a three-legged stool — message, visual story, and delivery.

The amount of time required to develop a presentation is directly proportional to how high the stakes are.

Time Estimate for Developing a Presentation:

(average timeframes and steps for an hour-long presentation that has 30 slides)

  • 6-20 hours
    Research and collect from the web, colleagues, and the industry.
  • 1 hour
    Build an audience-needs map.
  • 2 hours
    Generate ideas via sticky notes.
  • 1 hour
    Organize the ideas.
  • 1 hour
    Have colleagues critique or collaborate around the impact the ideas will have on audience.
  • 2 hours
    Sketch a structure and/or a storyboard.
  • 20-60 hours
    Build the slides in a presentation application.
  • 3 hours
    Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse (in the shower, on the treadmill, or during the commute)

36-90 hours total

Seven Questions to Knowing Your Audience
  1. What are they like?
  2. Why are the here?
  3. What keeps them up at night?
  4. How can you solve their problem?
  5. What do you want them to do?
  6. How might they resist?
  7. How can you best reach them?

“Presenting is not simply about aesthetics or making things pretty; it’s about creating meaning. It’s about being present. I need to ensure that every person in the audience believes I’m having an individual conversation with them. That is my goal.”
— Rick Justice (Executive Vice President, Cisco Systems)

Chapter 2
Creating Ideas, Not Slides

Change your environment when you need to be creative.

Continue to sketch and force yourself to think through several more ideas.

Sticky notes allow ideas to be captured, sorted, and re-arranged as needed.
Don’t be stingy with the sticky notes.
Think though multiple alternatives.

Sketching is the magical part of the process — taking rough ideas, find tuning them, re-organizing them, and sketching it out all over again until you can see a story.
Don’t worry about the quality of your sketches.
The first sketch was the most obvious, but when given more thought, additional — and potentially better — ideas appear.

Strategies for Cross-culture Communication:
  1. Use images that are culturally neutral. Images translate, word don’t.
  2. Keep graphics extremely simple. Not all cultures process info from left to right. Simplifying is essential. You could animate the content so it gradually appears —  guiding the order the audience should process it.
  3. Connect with your audience. Detailed scripts actually hinder presenters from making that connection.

In the end, a great presentation should transcend linguistic, geographic, and cultural boundaries, Truth is truth.

Keep yourself visually and conceptually fed by watching films, visiting museums, and reading design-related publications.
Chapter 3
Creating Diagrams

 

Classifying Diagrams
  • Abstract Concepts
    • Flow
      Linear
      Circular
      Divergent / Convergent
      Multidirectional
    • Structure
      Matrices
      Trees
      Layers
    • Cluster
      Overlapping
      Closure
      Enclosed
      Linked
    • Radiate
      From a point
      With a core
      Without a core
  • Realistic Concepts
    • Pictorial
      Direction
      Location
      Reveal
      Process
      Influence
    • Display Data
      Comparison
      Trend
      Distribution

The abstract concepts are usually shapes that are combined to show relationships.

Including display data in the diagram section may seem illogical. But data displayed visually is a diagram of sorts — and it’s often more clear when the display highlights the meaning of the information.

Making Diagrams Work Together
  • Cluster: Enclosed
  • Radiate: With a core
  • Radiate: From a point
  • Cluster: Enclosed
  • Structure: Layers
  • Flow: Convergent

 

Chapter 4
Displaying Data

 

Five Data Slide Rules
  • Tell the truth
  • Get to the point
  • Pick the right tool for the job
  • Highlight what’s important
  • Keep it simple

 

Chapter 5
Thinking Like a Designer

 

Designing Effective Slides
  • Arrangement
    • constrast
    • hierarchy
    • unity
    • space
    • proximity
    • flow
  • Visual Elements
    • background
    • color
    • text
    • images
  • Movement
    • timing
    • pace
    • distance
    • direction
    • eye flow

“People have a hard time coping with excessive cognitive strain. There is simply a limit to a person’s ability to process new information efficiently and effectively. Understanding can be hard enough without the excessive and nonessential bombardment by our visuals that are supposed to be playing a supportive role.”
— Garr Reynolds (Author, Presentation Zen)

Chapter 6
Arranging Elements

 

Placement of Elements Creates Meaning
  • Contrast
    The audience can identify the main point quickly.
  • Flow
    The audience know the order in which to process the information.
  • Hierarchy
    The audience sees the relationship between elements.

    • Elements are equal
    • Parent Dominates
    • Child Dominates
  • Unity
    The audience senses that the information belongs together.
  • Proximity
    The audience perceives meaning from the location of elements.
  • Whitespace
    The audience has visual breathing room.

Overcrowding the slides doesn’t add to the clarity of the message.

Chapter 7
Using Visual Elements: Background, Color, and Text

 

The Ingredients of a Great Slide
  • Background
    Use your first and last slides (called bumper slides) to identify yourself or company.
    The lower right is the best place for logo.
    Laws of Environmental Consistency

    • consistent vanishing point
    • consistent light source
    • consistent effect on the elements

    Avoid adding photos or images to the background. It distracts the audience.

  • Color (R G B)
    • Monochromatic
      • Earthy
        72, 107, 28
        101, 141, 43
        144, 193, 62
      • Strong
        144, 25, 28
        215, 32, 39
        243, 113, 84
    • Analogous
      • Powerful
        136, 20, 119
        196, 22, 28
        198, 68, 31
      • Calm
        0, 172, 179
        0, 175, 113
        136, 198, 91
    • Complementary
      • Athletic
        202, 108, 24
        0, 84, 150
      • Feminine
        191, 86, 139
        188, 211, 87
    • Split Complementary
      • Regal
        84, 39, 133
        206, 138, 20
        92, 160, 56
      • Retro
        47, 179, 202
        241, 86, 79
        246, 150, 84
    • Triadic
      • Inviting
        0, 124, 128
        123, 10, 107
        206, 128, 20
      • Playful
        13, 124, 193
        208, 63, 65
        252, 238, 33
    • Tetradic
      • Spirited
        0, 82, 149
        27, 125, 55
        138, 13, 16
        202, 103, 32
      • Healthy
        103, 163, 189
        144, 193, 62
        199, 77, 31
        192, 104, 138

      To assemble a palette, ideally select three to five core colors from the color wheel, plus a neutral and a highlight color.

  • Text
    Remember the 3-second rule.
    Make sure your apostrophes have a head and a tail. If they look like splinters, it’s bad; if they look like tadpoles, it’s good.
    In typesetting terms, a widow is a single word by itself at the end of a paragraph. (NEVER)
    Bullet Laws

    • Protect audience
    • Use sparingly
    • Write headlines
    • Use parallel structure
    • Avoid sub-bullets

    “A good rule of thumb for font size is to divide the oldest investor’s age by two, and use that font size.” — Kawasaki, author and former Apple Fellow

  • Images
Chapter 8
Using Visual Elements: Images

 

Photography
  • Establishing a photographic family
  • The Rule of Thirds
  • Taking your own photos
    Do not snag images from the web. If your presentation becomes popular online, the owner of the images can insist you pay usage rights. That can be expensive.
Illustration
  • Using the personality of lines
  • Creating an illustration library
  • Illustrating complex stories
    It’s best to build and animate these complex stories so the audience understands the interconnectedness of the various parts over time.
  • Stylizing diagrams and illustrations
Chapter 9
Creating Movement

If you choose to use animation, it should look natural and alive.
The movement of objects should seem familiar and make sense.

Animation uses motion, speed, and direction for these purposes:
  • Change in Relationship
  • Direction
  • Change in Object
  • Sequence
  • Emphasis

Creating panoramas and scenes, not slides.
Content can pan from scene to scene, rather than just from slide to slide.

Avoiding Visual Vertigo
Just because an animation feature is an application doesn’t mean you have to use it.

You know You’re Using Animation Wrong When:

 

  • The animation is unnatural or counterintuitive.
  • The pace is frenetic, annoying, or chronic (buzzes like a fly).
  • It doesn’t add value to the content or serve a purpose.
  • The movement distracts the audience from the presenter.
  • The animation feature is used “just because.”
  • Too many animations confuse the purpose.
  • The animation style is inappropriate for the content.
  • A sudden animation surprises or startles the audience.

 

Chapter 10
Governing with Templates

When more than one person generates presentations for an organization, a well-built template system is a must.

Always remember, employees are ambassadors of the brand. Their interactions with the industry, clients, and shareholders keep the brand perpetually visible. Arming them with the right tools helps tell a cohesive visual story and also streamlines their presentation development process.

Build a template that is timeless so that you won’t tire of it easily. If built well, it can remain in circulation for years.

  • Rarely Change
    • Logo
    • Signage
    • Template-driven systems
      • Business systems (letterhead)
      • Website framework
      • Brochure templates
      • Datasheets
    • Visual attributes
      • Color palettes
      • Grid layouts
      • Fonts
      • Graphical elements
  • Often Transform
    • Ad campaigns
    • Marketing campaigns
    • Retail displays and packaging
    • Annual reports

Before you start developing a template, a conversation with your IT department is in order.

  • Ask the IT department what the migration plan is for the company’s presentation application.
  • If you create a template loaded with images, query the IT department whether the organization has adequate storage.

 

Chapter 11
Interacting with Slides

Constraining the Text

The Three R’s of Letting Go:
  • Reduce
  • Record
  • Repeat

Constraining the Length

Constraining the Projector
As you know, if you pause during your presentation, it creates more drama and meaning, and reinforce what you have to say.

Just because your slides look great does not mean they convey useful meaning.

How many slides? Use the 10/20/30 Rule:
A PowerPoint presentation should have 10 slides, last no more than 20 minutes, and contain no font smaller than 30 points.

 

The 10 Topics that a Venture Capitalist Cares About:
  • Problem
  • Solution
  • Business model
  • Underlying magic/technology
  • Marketing and sales
  • Competition
  • Team
  • Projections and milestones
  • Status and timeline
  • Summary and call to action

How many slides? The Sky Is the Limit.
How many slides? Depends on the Technology.

Using a flip chart for a group this size is effective because a video feed magnifies the flip chart on a large screen so that everyone can see it.

Chapter 12
Manifesto: The Five Theses of the Power of a Presentation
  • Treat Your Audience as King
    They didn’t come to your presentation to see you. They came to find out what you can do for them. Success meaning giving them a reason for taking their time, providing content that resonates, and ensuring it’s clear what they are to do.
  • Spread Ideas and Move People
    Creating great ideas is what we were born to do; getting people to feel like they have a stake in what we believe is the hard part. Communicate your ideas with strong visual grammar to engage all their senses and they will adopt the ideas as their own.
  • Help Them See What You’re Saying
    Epiphanies and profoundly moving experiences come from moments of clarity. Think like a designer and guide your audience through ideas in a way that helps, not hinders their comprehension. Appeal not only to their verbal senses, but to their visual senses as well.
  • Practice Design, Not Decoration
    Orchestrating the aesthetic experience through well-known but oft-neglected design practices often transforms audiences into evangelists. Don’t just make pretty talking points. Instead, display information in a way that makes complex information clear.
  • Cultivate Healthy Relationships
    A meaningful relationship between you, your slides, and your audience will connect people with content. Display information in the best way possible for comprehension rather than focusing on what you need as a visual crutch. Content carriers connect with people.

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最后再加几个我曾经看到国内外相关的PPT的链接:

 

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